Background Information

South Sudan was an autonomous region of the Republic of Sudan from 2005, after the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of Sudan and Sudan People’s Liberation Army to 2011, when South Sudan gained independence.

After several decades of a civil war that was one of the longest lasting and deadliest wars of the 20th century between the government of Sudan and the people of southern Sudan that demanded more regional autonomy. A peace agreement known as the Naivasha Agreement was signed on January 9, 2005, giving autonomy to the state.

On January 9, 2005, the Government of Southern Sudan was established after the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. John Garang, the leader of Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement became the President of the Government of Southern Sudan and Vice President of Sudan. On July 2005 Garang died in a helicopter crash and was succeeded in both posts by Salva Kiir Mayardit, with Riek Machar as Vice-President of Southern Sudan.

A new constitution was adopted in December 2005 and a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan was held from 9 to 15 January 2011 from which the country become independent on 9 July 2011 as the referendum passed with 98.83% , and up to today the country is under the leadership of President Salva Kiir Mayardit.

Background Information has been summarized to include the following

Geography and Climate

Population of South Sudan

Political context of South Sudan