Mogadishu City in Somalia
Mogadishu locally known as Xamar is the largest city in Somalia and the nation’s capital.
Located in the coastal Banaadir region on the Indian Ocean, in southeastern Somalia, the city has served as an important port for centuries.
History of Mogadishu
Mogadishu, now the capital city of Somalia, was one of the first Muslim settlements on the East African coast and its first secure harbor.
Mogadishu was established by Arab immigrants from the Persian Gulf, and was one of the earliest in the long range of Arab settlements all over the East African coast. Its location attracted traders who traded across the Indian Ocean with Persia, India and China.
Mogadishu prospered with trade with the interior, which spread Islam throughout Somalia. Trade increased among the Swahili cities of coastal East Africa in 1000 hence driving the Mogadishu economy by the early 1100s.
Mogadishu was for a while in the sixteenth century under the control of the Portuguese and then fell under the suzerainty of the Sultan of Zanzibar in 1871. Twenty years later the Sultan leased it to the Italians who then bought the city in 1905 and made it the capital of their colonial Somaliland until World War Two.
Mogadishu has a population of 2,000,000 million people 2013 estimate.
Geography and climate
Mogadishu is located at 2°4′N 45°22′E. The Shebelle River rises in central Ethiopia and comes within 30 kilometers (19 mi) of theIndian Ocean near Mogadishu before turning southwestward.
For a city situated so near the equator, Mogadishu has a dry climate. It is classified as hot and semi-arid (Köppen climate classification BSh). Much of the land the city lies upon is desert terrain. The city has a low annual rainfall of 427 millimetres (16.8 in), most which falls in the wet season. The rains are very variable from year to year, and drought is a constant problem for the people living in Somalia.
Sunshine is abundant in the city, averaging eight to ten hours a day year-round. It is lowest during the wet season, when there is some coastal fog and greater cloud coverage as warm air passes over the cool sea surface.
- By air
Flights once again arrive at Aden Adde International Airport just a few kilometers southwest of city centre, facilities are very basic, but the Turkish government has put up funds to renovate the airport and its security, control tower, and navigation systems. A few passenger flights are operating with the following airlines operating at the International Airport i.e Jubba Airways, African Express Airways, Daallo Airlines , East African, Turkish Airlines
- By boat
Small cargo ships regularly leave from the Old Harbour of Mombasa for Mogadishu and sometimes Kismayo. Speak with the security officers at the gate of this tiny port and they will negotiate a fare with the captain. The journey will take 2-5 days, depending on conditions. The sea is rough in July-August, requiring lengthier travel.
Roads leading out of Mogadishu connect the city to other localities in Somalia and to Ethiopia and Kenya. The city itself is cut into a several grid layouts by an extensive road network. Due to neglect brought on by the protracted civil war, there are few paved roads, but numerous unpaved and back streets throughout the city. The road network in Mogadishu is slowly being repaired and paved. A vehicle with driver and armed guards is a must
Mogadishu leads Somalia in port traffic and still serves as a major seaport. While daily shipments bring in vehicles, foodstuffs and electronic goods, among other items.
Despite the civil unrest, Mogadishu counts several institutions of higher learning.
- Mogadishu University (MU)
- Somali National University
- Somali Institute of Management and Administration Development(SIMAD)
- Benadir University (BU)
Administrative divisions in Mogadishu
Mogadishu is situated in Banaadir, an administrative region in southeastern Somalia and is divided into the following administrative districts:
• Abdiaziz District
• Bondhere District
• Daynile District
• Dharkenley District
• Hamar-Jajab District
• Hamar-Weyne District
• Heliwa District
• Hodan District
• Howl-Wadag District
• Kaaraan District
• Shangaani District
• Shibis District
• Waabari District
• Wadajir District
• Warta Nabada District
• Yaaqshiid District