The Fourth Rwanda Population and Housing Census (RPHC4) of 2012 confirmed the population of Rwanda to be 10.5 million residents of which 52% are women and 48% men. Since the 2002 Census, the population has increased by 2.4 million, which represents an average annual growth rate of 2.6%. The population of Rwanda is still largely rural, with 83% living in rural areas. Government recognises that planned urbanisation creates opportunities for socio-economic growth as it enables proper use of resources. The National Urbanisation Policy (2015) by Ministry of Infrastructure indicates that urban population has increased from 4.6% in 1978 to 16.5% in 2012 and it is envisaged to reach 35% by 2020 in the Vision 2020. The current growth rate of urban population is estimated at 4.1%.The government is putting in place measures to position Kigali as a centre for investment and business growth but also with a focus of promoting balanced and transformative urbanisation through the development of secondary cities.