The sector is faced with the following challenges:
- Land scarcity as a result of high population.
- Soil fertility has deteriorated dramatically over time which has resulted into low agriculture output.
- Rwanda’s land is at a high risk of erosion hence limiting agriculture in some areas.
- The growth of coffee exports has been held back by fluctuating international coffee prices hence low income from coffee export.
- Rwandan agriculture continues to be characterized by very low levels of inputs in the form either organic manure or other fertilizers.
- Agriculture is based on rainfall as little irrigation goes on in Rwanda.
- There is danger of low soil fertility and soil erosion as of deforestation.
- Low purchasing power among the rural people.
- Lack of awareness about market dynamics by the farmers in the country.
- Limited market participation by the farmers
- Lack of access to financial services.
- Agricultural advisory services are not easily accessed by the rural farmers.